VAP-1 and renalase in solid organ transplant recipients

Abstract

Transplantation of an organ harvested from another person is one of the methods of treatment of end-stage organ failure. Endothelial dysfunction is a frequent finding in transplant recipients. It is also very common in cardiovascular disorders and chronic kidney disease. Vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) is a dual-function glycoprotein. As an adhesion molecule, it is involved in rolling, adhesion and migration of leukocytes to the inflammatory site, and is a semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase. VAP-1 is secreted by a number of cells, including endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells or adipocytes. Increased VAP-1 levels were shown in cardiac and renal transplant recipients. In cardiac transplant recipients its levels are mainly determined by left ventricular geometry. In both recipient groups VAP-1 was higher in patients with diabetes in comparison with their non-diabetic counterparts. Renalase belongs to a class of amine oxidases – secreted, for example, by the kidneys, adipocytes and endothelium. It causes degradation of bloodstream catecholamines, through which it may be involved in blood pressure regulation. Renalase concentration, markedly increased in renal and cardiac transplant recipients, was predicted by renal function which deteriorates with age and time from transplantation. Further studies are necessary on the potential role of VAP-1 and renalase in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disorders, including arterial hypertension, also in the population of organ transplant recipients.

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